Intersection Sight DIstance Parameters for Horse-Drawn Vehicles


  • Jay Grossman Valparaiso University
  • Charles McKenzie Elkhart County Highway Department
  • Ignacio Veloz Valparaiso University



Roads & Highways, safety, intersection sight distance, non-motorized, horse-drawn vehicles, Amish


Current intersection sight distance design parameters may not adequately accommodate horse-drawn vehicles which are present in significant numbers in some rural areas of the United States.  This study examined the intersection sight distance case for two-way, stop-controlled intersections (stop on the minor road) for horse-drawn vehicles.  The eye height of a horse-drawn vehicle driver was found to average 5.8 feet, noticeably higher than the standard value used for passenger cars, but less than that used for trucks.  The stopping position of horse-drawn vehicle drivers was found to be further from the edge of travelled way of the major road than for motorized traffic, at an average distance of 27.2 feet.  Analysis of accepted and rejected gaps for left turns, right turns and crossing maneuvers suggests that the critical gaps for horse-drawn vehicles are noticeably longer than for either passenger cars or trucks and range from 12 to 14 seconds.


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